Set 241 to win on an overcast day in Brisbane, the Bulls' batting line-up failed to fire against a desperate South Australian side who were upset by the Cricket Australia XI in their opening game on Wednesday.
Queensland lost wickets early with openers Usman Khawaja and Matthew Renshaw falling before the score had reached 20.
From there the hosts were unable to build partnerships during their chase, with a brisk 60 off 69 balls from Jimmy Peirson and starts to Joe Burns (24), Marnus Labushagne (21) and Michael Neser (21) the only bright sparks in a disappointing batting display.
Queensland's performance with the ball was highlighted by a positive debut from paceman Brendan Doggett who took two wickets and two catches, including a screamer at third mam, while all-rounder Jack Wildermuth impressed with four wickets.
The Bulls have six days to recoup before looking to get their campaign back on track against the Victorian Bushrangers next Saturday in Sydney.