At stumps on day three, Queensland were 0-7 after Victoria declared late in the day at 9-436 to concede a first-innings deficit of 16 runs.
Victoria's innings consumed 154 overs, while Queensland reached their tally in 128 overs.
Young Victorian batsman Will Pucovski scored his debut first-class century in just his fourth match, eventually being the seventh batsman out having hit 188 in a marathon 414-ball innings.
Knowing a draw would keep Queensland in touching distance on the ladder, Victoria seemed intent on saving the match as their main priority, adding just 46 during a laborious middle session.
The Bushrangers, however, turned up the pace significantly in the final session, with wicketkeeper Seb Gotch scoring 63 in a 124-run stand for the sixth wicket with Pucovski.
The 20-year-old Pucovski earlier shared a crucial 175-run partnership for the fourth wicket with skipper Cameron White (62) after the Vics slipped to 3-59.
Queensland's bowlers struggled for penetration on a low and slow wicket, which resembled that used for the drawn Fourth Ashes Test earlier in the summer.
Leg spinner Mitch Swepson delivered a massive 49 overs to finish with 3-151.
Queensland entered the round as Sheffield Shield leaders only to be tipped out of top spot by Tasmania's innings' victory on Sunday.
They trail the Tigers by less than a point and could go ahead again later today depending on bonus points.
Live scores and stream at http://live.cricket.com.au/#/2029/42128/overview