Chasing a victory target of just 150, the Bulls resumed on day four at 5-102 but quickly lost 'keeper Jimmy Peirson for 27.
Labuschagne ensured there were no more anxious moments for Queensland, guiding the hosts to 6-150 and an outright victory with an unbeaten 72.
It was a timely reminder to selectors from Labuschagne - who also hit a solid 32 in the first dig - before the first Test against Pakistan starting in Brisbane on November 21.
Labuschagne stood tall after the Bulls suffered a horror collapse late on Sunday, losing five wickets in 14 balls.
He shared a 62-run sixth wicket stand with Peirson.
Redbacks quick Nick Winter finished with 4-37.
Queensland currently sit in second spot on the Marsh Sheffield Shield ladder, with NSW earlier wrapping up their second outright win in a row to be the competition leaders.
The Bulls have a quick turnaround to prepare for Wednesday's Marsh One Day Cup game against the Redbacks at the Gabba.