Queensland threw the bat at everything in pursuit of WA's massive 387 but were bowled out for 271 off 42.3 overs at Hurstville Oval in Sydney.
Short turned on an extraordinary display of hitting, making the most of the ground's small perimeter to hit a record 23 sixes in a competition-high score of 257.
The 28-year-old opener comfortably eclipsed the previous mark of 229 not out set by Ben Dunk and only fell 11 runs short of the one-day world record.
In response, Queensland went down swinging with Sam Heazlett posting 107 from 102 balls.
Queensland were still in the hunt with Heazlett and the dangerous Chris Lynn (58 from 48 balls) at the crease, but the former's departure saw the Bulls lose their final eight wickets for 33.
WA fast bowler Andrew Tye did most of the late damage to claim career-best figures of 6-46.