The captain's first Shield ton in three seasons was typically classy, with an unbeaten 84 from Matthew Renshaw icing a fine day for the Bulls which started patiently before roaring home to 4-331.
Renshaw and in-touch Bulls keeper Jimmy Peirson (60no) will look to push on tomorrow when they resume at Glenelg as they push to keep the upper hand.
Queensland was in strife early, losing Joe Burns and Marnus Labuschagne cheaply, but Khawaja settled with the unflappable Bryce Street (38) to soak up the Redbacks pressure and then patiently turn the momentum back in their favour in the final session.
Khawaja hit 20 fours and two sixes on the way to 131. It was a timely knock and highlighted Queensland's composed and well-planned approach to their opening rounds of the competition.